Compression stockings are used in the treatment of varicose veins and venous insufficiency. They help reduce or completely alleviate the symptoms of venous disease, prevent blood clots, and are used after varicose vein treatment.
Compression stockings squeeze legs to compress veins and keep blood moving in the right direction which is back to the heart. The strength of compression stockings is measured in millimeters of mercury or mmHg. This is represented in a range (i.e. 20-30mmHg) from the lowest compression to the highest compression. 20-30mmHg is a commonly prescribed strength of stocking for by our vascular surgeons.
An Unna boot is a compression gauze dressing filled with Zinc paste. The Unna boot supports the healing of vascular wounds. Generally, an Unna boot is changed weekly by a vascular provider in order to assess the state of the wound and healing progression.
Western Vascular Institute is excited and honored to announce that we have been chosen as 1 of only 6 locations globally to apply a new intravascular ultrasound technology, the IntraSight Mobile IVUS by Philips.
This amazing new technology provides smart, accurate images inside vessels allowing vascular surgeons the ability to more accurately visualize, plan, diagnosis, and treat peripheral vascular disease during interventional procedures.
We are grateful for this opportunity to be a part of the rollout of this new device. It is not only an incredible honor, but it also shows the caliber of Doctors and staff here at Western Vascular Institute.
An Arteriovenous fistula or AV Fistula creation is a surgical connection made by a Vascular Surgeon between an artery and a vein for a patient diagnosed with End-Stage Renal Disease or ESRD. Typically they are located in the arm and are created to allow for long-term Hemo-Dialysis access. AV Fistula connections are the preferred access method for patients needing long-term dialysis because of their long-term functionality.
Vascular Surgeons diagnose, treat, and manage the full spectrum of vascular diseases.
“If you only have a hammer you tend to see every problem as a nail.”
Some vascular “specialists” perform one or two kinds of vascular interventions, so their patients tend to get those treatments. Vascular Surgeons are trained in all treatment modalities and are able to perform every type of procedure skillfully: open, complicated surgery and minimally invasive, in-office endovascular procedures. Some patients need one, some need the other, while many need no surgery at all. Vascular Surgeons are “treatment agnostic,” that is, they do not prefer any treatment over another.
Some types of surgeons come into your life to perform a procedure, make sure you heal and then leave; that’s their role. A vascular surgeon is someone who treats you on an ongoing basis for decades. A vascular surgeon very often has long-term relationships with patients because vascular disease can be a long-term condition.
At Western Vascular Institute, patients will get the best treatment for their particular needs in a caring and safe environment by a vascular surgeon with a full toolbox of treatment options!
An ankle-brachial index is a simple and non-invasive test performed to diagnose peripheral vascular disease. The index compares the blood pressure of the legs and arms and creates a ratio that shows the availability of blood to flow freely from one extremity to the other. The ABI is calculated by dividing the systolic blood pressure at the ankle by the systolic blood pressure in the arm.
During this test, patients lie on their back and a technician places blood pressure cuffs on the ankles and arms. The machine then inflates the cuffs alternating to get the ratio. This test may include exercise by walking on a treadmill for several minutes in order to simulate when a patient would feel pain due to peripheral artery disease and then takes the reading afterward to understand the severity of the said disease.
Pelvic congestion syndrome, also known as vulvar varicosities or ovarian reflux, is a common cause of chronic pain in up to 40% of women. PCS is caused by dilation of the ovarian and Pelvic veins in the lower abdomen. The typical age range when a woman develops PCS is from age 20-45 years old.
Pelvic or low back pain that increases after long periods of sitting or standing
Pain after intercourse (dyspareunia)
Pain before the menstrual cycle
Visible varicose veins around the vulva, vagina, inner thigh, and sometimes the buttocks and legs
Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
Abnormal bleeding during menstruation
Swelling of the vagina or vulva
Abnormal tenderness, increased urination, hip pain, and dragging sensation
50% of women with PCS have cystic ovaries
Transvaginal Ultrasounds (the Gold-Standard test)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Computed Tomography (CT) will provide visualization of incompetent veins and allow for a proper treatment plan
Pelvic Venography is used to provide a definitive diagnosis and provide treatment at the same time
May-Thurner Syndrome ( Compression of the left Iliac vein by the right iliac artery )
Left renal stenosis
Endometriosis, or scarring.
Medications such as NSAIDs or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chronic pain medications such as gabapentin and amitriptyline may be used to treat PCS.
Surgical intervention: Ovarian / pelvic vein coil embolization treatment. A catheter is placed into the vein wherein coil emboli (Small medical-grade spheres) are placed into the affected vein blocking the flow of blood in that area, allowing the blood to reroute through healthier veins. This procedure can be done in an outpatient setting and has a 98% success rate and a decrease in pain of 83% of patients in long-term follow-up.
Strokes are caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain and are classified by the type of blood flow interruption as listed below.
Ischemic stroke – occurs when blood vessel blockage prevents blood flow to the brain due to a plaque build-up in the carotid arteries.
Hemorrhagic stroke – occurs when the vessel ruptures inside of the brain and bleeds.
Transient Ischemic stroke or TIA – is a temporary blockage or mini-stroke which can cause permanent damage and are a sign of more severe stroke in the future.
Like Peripheral Arterial/Vascular Disease, Carotid Artery Disease is a narrowed blood flow through the vessel. This narrowing or blocked vessel becomes occluded by fatty deposits of plaque built up along the vessel wall leading to atherosclerotic disease. The Carotid artery is the primary source of blood to your brain. Therefore, a narrowing or blockage in the carotid artery is a serious complication and requires thorough and appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
Many people with Carotid Artery Disease do not experience symptoms even with quite a bit of arterial blockage. Generally, this condition is found after the patient experiences a stroke or by a routine patient examination.
Generally, Carotid Artery Disease is caused by atherosclerosis, where a build-up of plaque in the arteries reduces the flow of blood or blocks the flow entirely. This lack of blood flow and reduced oxygen supply to the brain can lead to stroke.
Risk Factors include:
Sedentary lifestyle, Overweight obesity, Diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, Family history, high fat diet, and age above 75 are all factors.
Diagnosis of Carotid Artery Disease is generally diagnosed through thorough physical examination and medical history. Your physician will also most likely be looking for a (bruit) swooshing sound in the carotid artery that is indicative of a narrowed artery. A Carotid Artery duplex ultrasound scan will also be performed to assess the flow of blood through the artery as well as the pressure.
The reason for the treatment of carotid artery disease is to reduce or mitigate the possibility of stroke.
For mild blockage:
Lifestyle changes such as eating a healthier diet, reducing salt intake, exercising regularly, losing weight, and quitting smoking are all ways that patients themselves can manage the disease and reduce the chance of blockage and stroke.
Medications may be given to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood and lower your blood pressure. Additionally, blood thinner medications may be given to prevent blood clots.
Carotid endarterectomy – generally performed when there is a blockage of 50% or above accompanied with symptoms such as a stroke.
TCAR – Western Vascular Institute is pioneering the use of a breakthrough technology called TransCarotid Artery Revascularization (TCAR) to treat patients with carotid artery disease who are at risk for open surgery. While any repair of the carotid artery carries some risk of causing a stroke because of the repair itself, TCAR was designed to help minimize that risk by keeping potential stroke-causing fragments away from the brain.
Carotid angioplasty/stenting – This procedure is performed to treat narrowed or occluded carotid arteries. In this procedure, the Vascular Surgeon inserts a wire through the groin and guided via x-ray imaging to the carotid artery. Once there, the balloon is placed to expand the narrowed section, and a stent is left in place afterward to maintain the vessel diameter and allow the blood to flow through the artery.
Claudication, also referred to as intermittent claudication, is pain caused by reduced blood flow to the lower extremities. Claudication is a symptom of the disease called Peripheral artery or peripheral vascular disease (PAD or PVD) rather than a disease itself.
Claudication can cause:
Pain in calves, thighs, feet, or other parts of the lower extremities