An ankle-brachial index is a simple and non-invasive test performed to diagnose peripheral vascular disease. The index compares the blood pressure of the legs and arms and creates a ratio that shows the availability of blood to flow freely from one extremity to the other. The ABI is calculated by dividing the systolic blood pressure at the ankle by the systolic blood pressure in the arm.
During this test, patients lie on their back and a technician places blood pressure cuffs on the ankles and arms. The machine then inflates the cuffs alternating to get the ratio. This test may include exercise by walking on a treadmill for several minutes in order to simulate when a patient would feel pain due to peripheral artery disease and then takes the reading afterward to understand the severity of the said disease.
Pelvic congestion syndrome, also known as vulvar varicosities or ovarian reflux, is a common cause of chronic pain in up to 40% of women. PCS is caused by dilation of the ovarian and Pelvic veins in the lower abdomen. The typical age range when a woman develops PCS is from age 20-45 years old.
Pelvic or low back pain that increases after long periods of sitting or standing
Pain after intercourse (dyspareunia)
Pain before the menstrual cycle
Visible varicose veins around the vulva, vagina, inner thigh, and sometimes the buttocks and legs
Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
Abnormal bleeding during menstruation
Swelling of the vagina or vulva
Abnormal tenderness, increased urination, hip pain, and dragging sensation
50% of women with PCS have cystic ovaries
Transvaginal Ultrasounds (the Gold-Standard test)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Computed Tomography (CT) will provide visualization of incompetent veins and allow for a proper treatment plan
Pelvic Venography is used to provide a definitive diagnosis and provide treatment at the same time
May-Thurner Syndrome ( Compression of the left Iliac vein by the right iliac artery )
Left renal stenosis
Endometriosis, or scarring.
Medications such as NSAIDs or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chronic pain medications such as gabapentin and amitriptyline may be used to treat PCS.
Surgical intervention: Ovarian / pelvic vein coil embolization treatment. A catheter is placed into the vein wherein coil emboli (Small medical-grade spheres) are placed into the affected vein blocking the flow of blood in that area, allowing the blood to reroute through healthier veins. This procedure can be done in an outpatient setting and has a 98% success rate and a decrease in pain of 83% of patients in long-term follow-up.
Strokes are caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain and are classified by the type of blood flow interruption as listed below.
Ischemic stroke – occurs when blood vessel blockage prevents blood flow to the brain due to a plaque build-up in the carotid arteries.
Hemorrhagic stroke – occurs when the vessel ruptures inside of the brain and bleeds.
Transient Ischemic stroke or TIA – is a temporary blockage or mini-stroke which can cause permanent damage and are a sign of more severe stroke in the future.
Like Peripheral Arterial/Vascular Disease, Carotid Artery Disease is a narrowed blood flow through the vessel. This narrowing or blocked vessel becomes occluded by fatty deposits of plaque built up along the vessel wall leading to atherosclerotic disease. The Carotid artery is the primary source of blood to your brain. Therefore, a narrowing or blockage in the carotid artery is a serious complication and requires thorough and appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
Many people with Carotid Artery Disease do not experience symptoms even with quite a bit of arterial blockage. Generally, this condition is found after the patient experiences a stroke or by a routine patient examination.
Generally, Carotid Artery Disease is caused by atherosclerosis, where a build-up of plaque in the arteries reduces the flow of blood or blocks the flow entirely. This lack of blood flow and reduced oxygen supply to the brain can lead to stroke.
Risk Factors include:
Sedentary lifestyle, Overweight obesity, Diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, Family history, high fat diet, and age above 75 are all factors.
Diagnosis of Carotid Artery Disease is generally diagnosed through thorough physical examination and medical history. Your physician will also most likely be looking for a (bruit) swooshing sound in the carotid artery that is indicative of a narrowed artery. A Carotid Artery duplex ultrasound scan will also be performed to assess the flow of blood through the artery as well as the pressure.
The reason for the treatment of carotid artery disease is to reduce or mitigate the possibility of stroke.
For mild blockage:
Lifestyle changes such as eating a healthier diet, reducing salt intake, exercising regularly, losing weight, and quitting smoking are all ways that patients themselves can manage the disease and reduce the chance of blockage and stroke.
Medications may be given to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood and lower your blood pressure. Additionally, blood thinner medications may be given to prevent blood clots.
Carotid endarterectomy – generally performed when there is a blockage of 50% or above accompanied with symptoms such as a stroke.
TCAR – Western Vascular Institute is pioneering the use of a breakthrough technology called TransCarotid Artery Revascularization (TCAR) to treat patients with carotid artery disease who are at risk for open surgery. While any repair of the carotid artery carries some risk of causing a stroke because of the repair itself, TCAR was designed to help minimize that risk by keeping potential stroke-causing fragments away from the brain.
Carotid angioplasty/stenting – This procedure is performed to treat narrowed or occluded carotid arteries. In this procedure, the Vascular Surgeon inserts a wire through the groin and guided via x-ray imaging to the carotid artery. Once there, the balloon is placed to expand the narrowed section, and a stent is left in place afterward to maintain the vessel diameter and allow the blood to flow through the artery.
Claudication, also referred to as intermittent claudication, is pain caused by reduced blood flow to the lower extremities. Claudication is a symptom of the disease called Peripheral artery or peripheral vascular disease (PAD or PVD) rather than a disease itself.
Claudication can cause:
Pain in calves, thighs, feet, or other parts of the lower extremities
Radiofrequency closure, also known as radiofrequency ablation, addresses the venous reflex disease that often causes varicose veins. It serves as an alternative to traditional vein stripping, which requires invasive surgical removal of the diseased veins. Instead, radiofrequency ablation uses heat energy to prompt the closure of diseased veins.
The surgeon starts by numbing the area with a topical and local anesthetic. Then, by way of a small incision, he or she passes a catheter or similar tool into the affected vein. The catheter serves as a channel through which the surgeon introduces an electrode.
When the surgeon pulls back on the catheter to expose the end of the fiber or electrode, energy passes into the vein as heat. This heat shrinks the collagen in the vein wall, which in turn causes the vein to shrink and close. The surgeon then removes the catheter and the patient’s body proceeds to heal the closure by rerouting blood to healthy veins.
An Arteriovenous fistula or AV Fistula creation is a surgical connection made by a Vascular Surgeon between an artery and a vein for a patient diagnosed with End-Stage Renal Disease or ESRD. Typically they are located in the arm and are created to allow for long-term Hemo-Dialysis access. AV Fistula connections are the preferred access method for patients needing long-term dialysis because of their long-term functionality.
The Joint Commission is an independent non-profit organization that accredits and certifies healthcare organizations in the United States. A Joint Commission accreditation and Gold Seal of approval is a symbol of Quality and Excellence that reflects an organization’s commitment to meeting and exceeding performance and safety standards.
Why should you care?
Hospitals are required to be joint commission accredited in order to provide the safest and appropriate care for their patients. But Accreditation is not required for outpatient centers such as Western Vascular Institute. Western Vascular requests these audits and subjects themselves to intense scrutiny to show our patients our continued commitment to quality care & outcomes in vein and artery treatments.
Are All Vein and Vascular centers accredited?
No, in fact, Western Vascular Institute is the only Vein and Vascular group in Arizona providing in-office care, dedicated to peripheral vascular disease accredited by The Joint Commission.
We believe that quality is the result of excellent work without compromise.
can occur without warning signs Also felt as discomfort in the affected area including Swelling and pain the affected leg. Additionally, redness and warmth along the vein where the clot is found.
Coagulation of blood is an important process that helps to prevent excessive bleeding during injury. However, in the absence of Injury, when the blood is not flowing properly or if it pools in the veins the platelets in the blood that help with coagulation can stick together and cause it to clot.
a. Inactivity- During a long flight or drive b. Damage to a vein c. Cancer or other diseases that cause your blood to clot more easily d. Medications e. Hormones
a. Age b. Obesity c. Pregnancy d. Family History of DVT e. Having a catheter placed in a vein f. Deep vein injury g. Smoking
Your vascular surgeon will ask questions about your symptoms and medical history as well as performing a thorough physical examination.
a. Duplex ultrasound to check the flow of blood in the area of the perceived clot. A Venograph can also be done by injecting a contrast dye into the vein under x-ray to see where the dye is allowed to pass through. The X-ray will show a mapping of your veins and show the area where the contrast dye was unable to pass through. Although DVT’s can generally be diagnosed by duplex ultrasound, venography is another option Western Vascular Institute has available to confirm the diagnosis.
Most often a Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT can be treated by a medication known as blood thinners or anticoagulants. These medications help prevent the blood from clotting and over time reduce the size and consistency of the clot.
Maintain good overall health including a healthy diet and staying physically active will help reduce the risk of a DVT. It is likewise important to maintain a healthy weight and make sure to follow up with your vascular surgeon to discuss the possibility of long-term blood thinner medications.